Authoritative and Neglectful Parenting Styles
There has been a long-term interest of psychologists in what way parents influence the development of a child. In fact, the causal relationship between parents’ actions and child’s subsequent conduct is hard to establish. Some kids who grown in radically different surroundings may have unusually similar qualities in the future, while those brought up in the same surroundings can become remarkably different persons.
Nevertheless, scholars have found undoubted connection between parenting styles and their impact on children. The initial research on more than 100 kids of preschool-age determined such vital aspects of parenting as control and maturity levels, communication style, nurturance and warmth tactics, and disciplinary measures. Parental interviews, real-life observations, and other investigation methods were used. Besides, a number of other studies about the influence of parenting style on children were conducted. This paper explores the effects of authoritative and neglectful parenting styles on kids.
Parents with an authoritative style create guidelines and rules for their children, but they are far more democratic than authoritarian parents, being willing to listen to kids. Such parents are rather forgiving and nurturing and avoid punishing when children are guilty. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative.
Giving many opportunities, high expectations, and positive support help provide self-regulation, critical thinking skills, motivation, self-confidence, and independence. Moreover, the authoritative parenting style is associated with high family cohesiveness and interaction. The parent’s reading or skiing with a youngster will be an illustration of a positively involved father/mother who wants to encourage child’s educational or physical achievement. Eventually, it is the most likely way to raise successful, capable, and happy children.
Kids of the authoritative parenting style achieve the highest academic results, including less unwanted behavior and more school participation. It should be mentioned that they succeed in most school climates, while those of the non-authoritative brought up do their best only in an authoritative climate. Preschool learners who had authoritative parents were more achievement-oriented, social, and mature than others. Also, there was a relationship between authoritative parenting style and high GPA. The researchers hypothesize that emotional security, which authoritative parents give to their children, provides them with independence and comfort and helps to be successful in school.
The willingness to negotiate with kids is very essential. They have a tendency to good social and communication skills. The process of negotiations teaches kids to interact with others with mutual respect. Among all, such children tend to take the initiative as well as to be businesspersons. They are more likely to start a new business as parents support their initiatives and individuality.
Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes
The study shows that the authoritative parenting style promotes the positive development of empathy that is associated with good social behavior in teenage years and later in life. Besides, parental frustration in an authoritative family can teach to develop moral identity. This means that pointing out a child’s mistake helps him/her recognize and correct it, thus, contributing to positive self-esteem development. The further investigation demonstrates that the positive effect of the authoritative style tends to increase when both parents follow it.
Children of the authoritative parenting style are likely to be cooperative with adults, peers, and family members. As a rule, they have altruism, empathy, and positive reasoning ability. Grown-ups with the authoritative parenting style have more impact on kids than their friends. Therefore, this style guides a youngster in the right direction, and the proper limits established by parents allow him/her to be less affected by peers.
Little communication, low responsiveness, and a few demands characterize a neglectful parenting style. These parents meet only the basic needs of a child, rejecting or neglecting others, and they are usually separated from the life of their kid. Today, many adults are forced to follow the neglectful parenting style because of the busy working schedule and bustling daily life. Parents have free time for kids very rarely. Such neglectful childcare is considered to be an extremely destructive way of bringing up children. They are generally less capable than their peers, have low self-esteem and lack self-control.
Academic Achievement and School Involvement
This group has the highest incidence of incarceration, unemployment, school dropout, depression, and poverty. Their academic success is practically absent, presenting lower test results than any other style. The cause of low academic achievement in this group is the lack of care, which can result in a low IQ level. Neglectful parents are usually careless in each aspect of child-rearing, comprising prenatal and post-partum baby nutrition. Baby malnutrition is related to poor cognitive development, having a direct influence on academic performance and low IQ tests. Initiatives and verbal skills generally remain intact, unlike kids of authoritative parents. In addition, these children are likely to have low social confidence and insignificant school involvement that is often associated with deviant behavior. On the other hand, the study points out that the child of the neglectful parents can have the benefit of an authoritative school climate. It compensates for lacks in child education at home.
The researchers note that children of the uninvolved parenting style occupy lower places in terms of emotional empathy and cognitive development, which is extremely important to positive social development. Empathy development consists of the understanding of personal feelings and/or emotions as well as feelings and/or emotions of other people. These children show poor social skills and appear emotionally needy. The neglectful parenting style is the most frequently connected with the development of depression and antisocial behavior in early life and adulthood. In general, such kids have low self-esteem but regularly prescribe themselves a higher level of self-enhance than children of another parenting style. The reason is that indifferent parents do not support their children and point out their shortcomings.
The findings illustrate that parents who are involved in a conversation with their kids on moral norms will transmit their thoughts, promoting positive social behavior. On the contrary, parents who do not talk about moral values will also share their ideology but contribute to negative social conduct. Neglected children either disengage or act out to be heard, in no way providing a satisfactory result. They tend to continue the neglect behavior style with their own kids, not having an appropriate support system.
Overall, parenting is a totality of behavioral patterns and approaches used to bring up children. The authoritative parenting style correlates with the positive outcomes of a child. Kids of authoritative parents are viewed as more instrumentally and socially competent than others, while children of neglectful parents perform the worst in all areas.
The main conclusion to be drawn from this study is that both parental demandingness and parental responsiveness are vital elements of proper child-rearing. Parental demandingness is related to behavioral control and academic achievements, whereas parental responsiveness provides psychosocial functioning and social competence. Balancing high emotional responsiveness and clear parental demands, authoritative parenting is the most acceptable style from babyhood to teenage years. Cooperation between parents is also essential to create a holistic approach to parenting.
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